Friday, 13 October 2017

Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving


 What is Thanksgiving?


   Thanksgiving day  kicks off the festive season in many countries like USA, Canada, some of the Caribbean islands and Liberia. It is a National holiday in these countries. First of all, It began as the day of giving thanks to the blessings of the harvest and other things of the past year. Canada celebrates Thanksgiving on second Monday of October whereas USA celebrates it on fourth Thursday of November. Similarly Other countries celebrate on same part of the year. Turkey is one of the common recipe served in this feast.

Thanksgiving


History:


   In 1621, Plymouth colonists and wampanoag Indians shared an autumn harvest feast. It acknowledges the first Thanksgiving celebrations in the colonies. Furthermore for more than two centuries Individual colonies and states celebrate this day since then. In 1863 i.e in the midst of civil war, The President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a National Thanks-giving day each November.


Thanksgiving at Plymouth:


    In September 1620, a small ship called the Mayflower left Plymouth, England, carrying 102 passengers. It was an assortment of religious separatists seeking a new home where they could freely practice their faith and other individuals lured by the promise of prosperity and land ownership in the New World. After a treacherous and uncomfortable crossing that lasted 66 days, they dropped anchor near the tip of Cape Cod. It was far north of their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River. One month later, the Mayflower crossed Massachusetts Bay, where the Pilgrims(Commonly known) began the work of establishing a village at Plymouth.

Pilgrims Menu:

               
    Throughout that first brutal winter, most of the colonists remained on board the ship.      They suffered from exposure, scurvy and outbreaks of contagious disease. Only half of the Mayflower’s original passengers and crew lived to see their first New England spring. Furthermore, In March, the remaining settlers moved ashore, where they receive an astonishing visit from an Abenaki(Indian) who greeted them in English.

        Several days later, he returned with another Native American, Squanto(A member of the Pawtuxet tribe). An English Sea Captain Kidnapped Mayflower and sold him into slavery.   He then escaped to London to him Homeland. Squanto taught the Pilgrims, weakened by malnutrition and illness, how to cultivate corn, extract sap from maple trees, catch fish in the rivers and avoid poisonous plants. He also helped the settlers forge an alliance with the Wampanoag, a local tribe. This endured for more than 50 years and tragically remains one of the sole examples of harmony between European colonists and Native Americans.


Pilgrims Harvest:

                           
    In November 1621, after the Pilgrims’ first successful corn harvest. In addition Governor William Bradford organized a celebratory feast. And  He invited a group of the fledgling colony’s Native American allies. It includes the Wampanoag chief Massasoit. Consequently, the Festival lasted for almost three days.This was called 'Americans First Thanksgiving'. However the pilgrims never used the term. While no record exists of the historic banquet’s exact menu.

                         
            A Pilgrim chronicler Edward Winslow wrote a journal. In his journal he wrote that Governor Bradford sent four men on a “fowling” mission in preparation for the event, and that the Wampanoag guests arrived bearing five deer. Historians have suggested that many of the dishes were likely prepared using traditional Native American spices and cooking methods. Because the Pilgrims had no oven and the Mayflower’s sugar supply had dwindled by the fall of 1621, the meal did not feature pies, cakes or other desserts, which have become a hallmark of contemporary celebrations.



Thanksgiving- An Official Holiday

 
    Pilgrims held their second Thanksgiving celebration in 1623 to mark the end of a long drought. A drought that had threatened the year’s harvest and prompted Governor Bradford to call for a religious fast. However Days of fasting and thanksgiving on an occasional basis probably became common practice in other New England settlements as well. During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress designated one or more days of thanksgiving a year.                             

       In 1789, George Washington issued the first Thanksgiving proclamation by the national government of the United States. In it, he called upon Americans to express their gratitude for the happy conclusion.  A conclusion to the country’s war of independence and the successful ratification of the U.S. Constitution. His successors John Adams and James Madison also designated days of thanks during their presidencies.

Declaration of Holiday

                       
        In 1817, New York became the first of several states to officially adopt an annual Thanksgiving holiday. Each celebrated it on a different day, however, and the American South remained largely unfamiliar with the tradition. In 1827, Sarah Josepha Hale launched a campaign to establish Thanksgiving as a national holiday.She was the noted magazine editor and prolific writer, author of the nursery rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb”. For 36 years, she published numerous editorials and sent scores of letters to governors, senators, presidents and other politicians.
                             
      Abraham Lincoln finally heeded her request in 1863, at the height of the Civil War. In a proclamation entreating all Americans to ask God to “commend to his tender care for all those who have become sufferers in the lamentable civil strife” and to “heal the wounds of the nation". He scheduled Thanksgiving for the final Thursday in November. It was celebrated on that day every year until 1939. Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the holiday up a week in an attempt to spur retail sales during the Great Depression. Roosevelt’s plan, known derisively as Franksgiving, was met with passionate opposition, and in 1941 the president reluctantly signed a bill making Thanksgiving the fourth Thursday in November.

Thanksgiving Traditions:


    In many American households, the Thanksgiving celebration has lost much of its original religious significance; instead, it now centers on cooking and sharing a bountiful meal with family and friends. Turkey, a Thanksgiving staple so ubiquitous it has become all but synonymous with the holiday, may or may not have been on offer when the Pilgrims hosted the inaugural feast in 1621. Today, however, nearly 90 percent of Americans eat the bird—whether roasted, baked or deep-fried—on Thanksgiving, according to the National Turkey Federation. Other traditional foods include stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Volunteering is a common Thanksgiving Day activity, and communities often hold food drives and host free dinners for the less fortunate.

                             
         Parades have also become an integral part of the holiday in cities and towns across the United States. Presented by Macy’s department store since 1924, New York City’s Thanksgiving Day parade is the largest and most famous, attracting some 2 to 3 million spectators along its 2.5 mile route and drawing an enormous television audience. It typically features marching bands, performers, elaborate floats conveying various celebrities and giant balloons shaped like cartoon characters.

Beginning in the mid-20th century and perhaps even earlier, the president of the United States has “pardoned” one or two Thanksgiving turkeys each year, sparing the birds from slaughter and sending them to a farm for retirement. A number of U.S. governors also perform the annual turkey pardoning ritual.

Thanksgiving's Ancient Origins:

 
    Although the American concept of Thanksgiving developed in the colonies of New England, its roots can also be traced back to the other side of the Atlantic. Both the Separatists who came over on the Mayflower and the Puritans arrived. And soon after brought with them a tradition of providential holidays days of fasting during difficult or pivotal moments. And also the days of feasting and celebration to thank God in times of plenty.

    As an annual celebration of the harvest and its bounty, moreover, Thanksgiving falls under a category of festivals that spans cultures, continents and millennia. In ancient times, the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans feasted and paid tribute to their gods after the fall harvest. Thanksgiving also bears a resemblance to the ancient Jewish harvest festival of Sukkot. Finally, historians have noted that Native Americans had a rich tradition of commemorating the fall harvest with feasting and merrymaking long before Europeans set foot on their shores.







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